Canal Street, 1890s

Canal Street, 1890s

Canal Street 1890s.

Canal street 1890s

700 and 800 blocks of Canal Street, early 1890s

The CBD – Canal Street, 1890s – Before electric streetcars

A Mugnier photo depicts an interesting transitional period. Electricity arrived for buildings, but not yet for streetcars. That puts the photo pre-1894, but not much earlier. Mugnier stood on the corner of Canal and Baronne Streets. The left side of the photo is of the 800 block of Canal Street. Building numbers are still on the old system. So, the first address at the river was #1, then 2, etc. That’s how Kreeger’s is #149.

Notice that “S. Kuhn”, the store next to D.H. Holmes (left) has a sign that says “Kid Glove Depot. Kreegers’ sign next door says the same thing. In 1897, the Krausz Brothers specialized in gloves in their shop at 835 Canal as well.

700 Block of Canal

The Touro Buildings, in the 700 block, can’t be seen for the trees. Trees in the neutral ground of Canal Street helped beautify Canal. While they helped at the time, they cover up some of the street rail operations! So, there’s a carpet store at the corner of Bourbon and Canal. Fellman Brothers, in the 700 block, dissolved in 1892. It’s hard to tell if the Fellman store is Fellman Brothers (pre-1892), or B. Fellman. Leon Fellman split with brother Bernard in 1892. He moved his store down to the Mercier Buildings, as did S.J. Shwartz. He split with his family after the 1892 fire at A. Shwartz and Son. Abram passed away, and Simon also opened a new store in the Mercier Buildings.

Streetcars

“Bob-tail” streetcars from the Johnson Car Company sit on either side of the Clay Monument. Clay’s full base is visible. Mules provide the streetcar power. So, when the Canal Street line was electrified, the base was cut back drastically. On the right, one streetcar travels inbound, possibly turning at St. Charles Avenue. Two horse-drawn Hanson cabs sit on opposite sides of the neutral ground

 

Krauss – The New Orleans Value Store

by Edward J. Branley

Heather Elizabeth Designs

For almost one hundred years, generations of New Orleans shoppers flocked to Krauss. The Canal Street store was hailed for its vast merchandise selection and quality customer service. In its early days, it sold lace and fabric to the ladies of the notorious red-light district of Storyville. The store’s renowned lunch counter, Eddie’s at Krauss, served Eddie Baquet’s authentic New Orleans cuisine to customers and celebrities such as Julia Child. Although the beloved store finally closed its doors in 1997, Krauss is still fondly remembered as a retail haven. With vintage photographs, interviews with store insiders and a wealth of research, historian Edward J. Branley brings the story of New Orleans’ Creole department store back to life.

Camp Nicholls, Bayou St. John

Camp Nicholls, Bayou St. John

Camp Nicholls – for Civil War Veterans

camp nicholls

Camp Nicholls, on Bayou St. John, in the early 1900s

Camp Nicholls along the bayou

New Orleans has always been good to its native sons returning home from wars. After the Civil War, an “Old Soldiers Home” was founded as a refuge for veterans, located on Bayou St. John. That tract of land has had interesting and historical uses ever since as an escape for soldiers from both the Civil War and World War II and then as the property of the National Guard.

Since New Orleans was spared most of the ravages of war experienced by other cities, locals were able to look to the future of the post-war world. Caring and housing returning veterans was already on the minds of folks in 1866. The State of Louisiana appropriated funds to establish a home for these men. As Reconstruction politicians acquired control of state government, however, the continuing appropriation for the home was cut off. The home continued as a privately-funded institution, but struggled.

Francis T. Nicholls

camp nicholls

Governor Francis T. Nicholls, former CSA Brigadier and patron of Camp Nicholls

The cause of a Confederate Veterans Home grew by the 1880s. Veterans’ associations petitioned the state for financial assistance. The state re-enacted the original 1866 legislation. The project was funded. In 1883. The leader of the project’s board was Francis T. Nicholls. Nicholls served a term as governor, and was a lawyer in New Orleans. During the war, Nicholls was a CSA Brigadier. He lost his left foot at the Battle of Chancellorsville in 1863.

This board purchased a large lot, located on Bayou St. John. Joseph R. DeMahy sold the property DeMahy was, a former Lieutenant in the Confederate Navy. The board worked with several veterans associations, parish police juries and private citizens for money, They held fund raising events such as battle re-enactments on the property. They raised enough money to hire architect William A. Freret. Freret designed a complex of several buildings.

The home accepted its first inmate, James Adams, on February 5, 1884. Adams was a veteran of the 1st Louisiana Infantry. Dedication of the site as “Camp Nicholls” took place on March 14, 1884. Over 600 people attended that ceremony, including the daughters of CSA Generals Robert E. Lee, “Stonewall” Jackson, and D. H. Hill. Nicholls’ success in fund raising for the home became a model for other veterans’ associations in various states, and helped propel him back into the Governor’s office in 1888.

The Submarine

camp nicholls

CSA “submarine” found in Lake Pontchartrain, after the war, at Camp Nicholls in the early 1900s

The Old Soldiers Home then became a fixture in Faubourg St. John. So, it received listing in tourist guides as a place to visit along the bayou. In 1909, construction workers discovered a prototype “submarine” in Lake Pontchartrain, by the mouth of Bayou St. John. They raised the wreck and cleaned it up. The salvage company donated the vessel to the Camp Nicholls. The home displayed the submarine for years. When Camp Nicholls was in decline, the home donated the boat to the Louisiana State Museum. LSM displayed it at the Presbytere in the French Quarter. It’s now on display at the Old State Capitol in Baton Rouge.

With so many of the Confederate veterans passing away, Camp Nicholls lost its original purpose. While the US Army ramped up for war in 1917, Camp Nicholls changed control. The complex housed the First Louisiana Infantry, the Washington Artillery, and the First Separate Troop Cavalry. After these units deployed to Europe, the home calmed down once again, housing just old veterans.

Camp Nicholls

Cover of a pamphlet documenting the use of Camp Nicholls prior to WWI. (Photo courtesy of Tulane University Howard-Tilton Library)

Rebel Yell

The tradition of the “Lost Cause of the South” remained strong in New Orleans, and the former Confederacy as a whole, even going into the 1930s. In 1932, as part of an effort to preserve the oral histories of surviving Confederate veterans, the Times-Picayune newspaper arranged to gather a number of veterans together at Camp Nicholls and film them doing the infamous “Rebel Yell.” The group gathered along the bayou on February 11, 1932, and a number of veterans, clad in their Confederate uniforms, stepped up to a microphone and did the battle cry.

Transition/Repurpose

Camp Nicholls

Letterhead from Camp Nicholls, 1901 (Courtesy LaRC, Tulane University)

There were no living Confederate veterans at Camp Nicholls by 1940. The Old Soldiers Home formally closed. The Louisiana National Guard took over the complex. The Guard used Camp Nicholls as an armory and vehicle depot throughout World War II. The Guard turned the facility over to the City of New Orleans in the 1960s, who used it to house the NOPD’s Police Academy and 3rd District Headquarters until the 1990s.

Camp Nicholls site today

Camp Nicholls

Camp Nicholls property, as it is today. (Photo courtesy of Mid City Messenger)

The complex sustained heavy damage in Hurricane Katrina. In 2009, after determining that the remaining buildings all dated from the 1950s, the city was granted permission to raze the site, and it’s been an empty lot since. Last year, Deutsches Haus, a non-profit organization whose mission is the preservation of German culture in New Orleans, leased the property. They plan to build the “new Deutsches Haus” along the bayou.

The Camp Nicholls property is fenced off and not accessible to visitors, but if you take the Canal Streetcar Line to City Park, you can cross over Bayou St. John and look through the fence. Maybe you’ll even feel the spirit of one of the “old soldiers,” as many have reported in the past.

Krauss – The New Orleans Value Store

by Edward J. Branley

Heather Elizabeth Designs

For almost one hundred years, generations of New Orleans shoppers flocked to Krauss. The Canal Street store was hailed for its vast merchandise selection and quality customer service. In its early days, it sold lace and fabric to the ladies of the notorious red-light district of Storyville. The store’s renowned lunch counter, Eddie’s at Krauss, served Eddie Baquet’s authentic New Orleans cuisine to customers and celebrities such as Julia Child. Although the beloved store finally closed its doors in 1997, Krauss is still fondly remembered as a retail haven. With vintage photographs, interviews with store insiders and a wealth of research, historian Edward J. Branley brings the story of New Orleans’ Creole department store back to life.

Podcast – “Ain’t Dere No More” with Heather Elizabeth Designs

Podcast – “Ain’t Dere No More” with Heather Elizabeth Designs

Heather Elizabeth Designs!

heather elizabeth designs

“Ain’t Dere No More Affirmation Bracelet” by Heather Elizabeth Designs

Heather Elizabeth Designs – Ain’t Dere No More!

This week’s pod is a departure for NOLA History Guy Podcast – it’s an interview! Been wanting to get this started for a while now. Heather and I were brainstorming a couple of weeks ago about tying promotion of my books with her ADNM jewelry, nightlights, and other items. I bought a Zoom H5 digital audio recorder a few weeks back. It’s incredibly portable, and the built-in mics are so good, many podcasters use the Zoom mic as their primary microphone, connected to a computer. So, I told Heather that we needed to sit down and talk history. This lady researches her pieces and knows her stuff.

What we did for the pod was to go around her “Ain’t Dere No More Affirmation Bracelet” and talk about the places represented by the various logos. It was a fun conversation. Here’s a brief run-down:

Rosenberg’s Furniture

You’re already singing the jingle. Admit it, you know you are.

Da Beach!

Heather Elizabeth Designs

Pontchartrain Beach t-shirt from New Orleans Public Service

Heather and I decided we need to do a full episode together and talk about Pontchartrain Beach. We’ll do that in May or so, since that’s when Da Beach opened every year. New Orleans Public Service not only has a Pontchartrain Beach t-shirt, but it features the Art Deco-style entrance to the Zephyr, the wooden roller coaster that was the amusement park’s signature ride.

Falstaff

heather elizabeth designs

Falstaff Brewery, now the Falstaff Apartments (courtesy Flickr user “Falstaff Tulane Broad”

A long-time New Orleans landmark, the old brewery is now the Falstaff Apartments, at 2600 Gravier Street.

K&B

K&B Drug Stores, by John Epstein.

Everybody’s got a K&B story or four. We shared some of ours. This will definitely be another pod at some point. The photo here is the cover of John Epstein’s wonderful book, K&B Drug Stores, from my publisher, Arcadia.

D. H. Holmes

Heather Elizabeth Designs

800 block of Canal Street, 1864 featuring the D.H. Holmes Dry Goods Store

Daniel Henry Holmes opened his dry goods store in 1842, and it became a New Orleans fixture and landmark. The building is still there, as a hotel.

Schwegmann’s

heather elizabeth designs

Schwegmann Brothers Giant Supermarket, 2701 Airline Highway, in 1954. (courtesy NOLA.com)

“Makin’ Groceries, Schwegmann Style” – the photo is of the Schwegmann’s Heather talks about, not the smaller store on Airline that I remembered. Ann Maloney of Da Paper did a nice article on The People’s Grocer: John G. Schwegmann (2017, Neutral Ground Press, $20). The article has a bunch of other great Schwegmann’s photos.

JAX Beer!

heather elizabeth designs

JAX Brewery, the Moonwalk, and a Riverfront Streetcar (Infrogmation photo)

The Fabacher family’s brewery, located across the street on Decatur from Jackson Square.

Krauss – The New Orleans Value Store

Heather Elizabeth Designs

Krauss – The New Orleans Value Store by Edward J. Branley

My latest book! It’s available for pre-order on Amazon.com now, and will be in local shops on September 25th. Heather has the logo as it was used regularly by the store on the bracelet. The book’s cover is reversed to make the store’s name stand out a bit more.

Heather Elizabeth Designs

Sacred Heart brass-and-silver cuff, from Heather Elizabeth Designs (Edward Branley photo)

In addition to Heather’s ADNM bracelet, I could not take my eyes off her latest piece, a brass and sterling cuff with a Sacred Heart charm set in it. Heather’s an Academy of the Sacred Heart girl, and I’m a Brothers of the Sacred Heart boy!

Shout-Outs

New Orleans Public Service and LA46 – great t-shirts and a great store and venue

Beyond Bourbon St – Mark Bologna’s fantastic podcast

heather elizabeth designs

The Station – coffee shop on Bienville at N. Alexander Streets

Rate NOLA History Guy!

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Krauss – The New Orleans Value Store

by Edward J. Branley

Heather Elizabeth Designs

For almost one hundred years, generations of New Orleans shoppers flocked to Krauss. The Canal Street store was hailed for its vast merchandise selection and quality customer service. In its early days, it sold lace and fabric to the ladies of the notorious red-light district of Storyville. The store’s renowned lunch counter, Eddie’s at Krauss, served Eddie Baquet’s authentic New Orleans cuisine to customers and celebrities such as Julia Child. Although the beloved store finally closed its doors in 1997, Krauss is still fondly remembered as a retail haven. With vintage photographs, interviews with store insiders and a wealth of research, historian Edward J. Branley brings the story of New Orleans’ Creole department store back to life.

Krauss Service Building, 28-February-1951

Krauss Service Building, 28-February-1951

Krauss Service Building

krauss service building

Krauss Service Building, February 28, 1951

Krauss Service Building

While it was a huge store, Krauss Department Store wanted more space for shopping! This service building was a long time in planning. Krauss broke ground on the project in 1950. It opened for business in 1952. This Franck Studios photo, from February 28, 1952, shows the Krauss service building with its exterior complete. Management chose the R.P. Farnsworth construction company to build the expansion.

So, the plan for the expansion called for a building occupying the block directly behind the store. A multi-story connector joined the main building to the new expansion. The connector enabled Krauss to move physical plant services, such as electrical and air conditioning to the expansion. Combined with moving stockrooms, the new building freed up over 95,000 square feet of space in the store building. That increase in retail sales space was a major boon for Krauss.

Long Time Coming

Leon Heymann began making real estate moves to secure the block from Canal to Iberville Streets, and the block from Iberville back to Bienville Streets in the 1920s. He didn’t want to create a situation where property owners would have him over a barrel. Therefore, buying up the blocks was a slow process. By 1940, Heymann acquired all of the necessary property, and was ready to start the expansion process. He tapped his brother-in-law, Leon Wolf, and his son, Jimmy Heymann. The pair discussed building back into the second block with architects, and contractors. Wolf and Jimmy traveled to other cities, checking out the physical plant facilities other stores used. Their goal was to create a modern expansion building for Krauss that would turn the main building into more floor space for shoppers.

While the management team was ready to go, their plans ended up on hold in 1941. The United States entered World War II. It wouldn’t be until 1950 before things settled down enough that the Heymanns and Wolf felt the capital expense was practical.

1201 Canal Condominiums

The Krauss service building remained in operation until the store closed in 1997. It was converted to condominiums as part of the 1201 Canal development.

So, the book is coming! It’s titled, Krauss – The New Orleans Value Store hits stores on September 25th. It’s currently available for pre-order on Amazon.com.

Krauss – The New Orleans Value Store

by Edward J. Branley

For almost one hundred years, generations of New Orleans shoppers flocked to Krauss. The Canal Street store was hailed for its vast merchandise selection and quality customer service. In its early days, it sold lace and fabric to the ladies of the notorious red-light district of Storyville. The store’s renowned lunch counter, Eddie’s at Krauss, served Eddie Baquet’s authentic New Orleans cuisine to customers and celebrities such as Julia Child. Although the beloved store finally closed its doors in 1997, Krauss is still fondly remembered as a retail haven. With vintage photographs, interviews with store insiders and a wealth of research, historian Edward J. Branley brings the story of New Orleans’ Creole department store back to life.

French Quarter Map 1808

French Quarter Map 1808

French Quarter Map 1808

French Quarter Map 1808

Map of the French Quarter, 1808

French Quarter Map 1808 – Gilbert Joseph Pilié

My Facebook friend Cathe Mizell-Nelson shared this fascinating map from The Historic New Orleans Collection. While there are several maps showing the streets of the French Quarter in the 18th/early 19th centuries, this one lists property owners. The cartographer is Gilbert Joseph Pilié. Here’s HNOC’s bio of Pilié:

Elected city surveyor of New Orleans 1818-1842. He surveyed New Orleans area lakes and helped establish forts between Bayou St. John and Mobile, Alabama. Gilbert Joseph Pilie began his New Orleans career as a teacher of drawing on Royal street, and as a scenic artist for the St. Philip Street Theatre and Olympic Circus. In 1818 he was elected city surveyor, a post he held until 1842. He was responsible for several memorials such as a triumphal arch honoring General Lafayette, and designed the riverfront vegetable markets. He was also involved in surveying the New Orleans area lakes and the establishment of forts between Bayou St. John and Mobile, Alabama.He married Therese Anne Deyant and had several children, including his son Louis Joseph, who succeeded him as city surveyor. DOB ca. 1789 DOD 1846-06-29

This map isn’t bad for a 19-year old!

Map Detail

The breakdown of property owners is an awesome resource, putting families on specific blocks of the Quarter. This isn’t a hi-res image, so it fuzzes out. You’ll need to contact HNOC to dig deeper.

A significant feature of this map is what’s not there on the eastern edge. The City of New Orleans comes to halt at what is now Esplanade Avenue. The Marigny Plantation is to the right on this map. Bernard Mandeville de Marigny began subdividing the plantation at this time. So, what we now know as Faubourg Marigny isn’t of interest to Pilié.

Church Property

The area around what we now call the “Old Ursuline Convent” is also interesting. The present-day convent/museum is at the corner of Ursulines and Chartres. The property runs down Chartres to St. Mary’s Italian Church. On this map, the convent property runs from Ursulines, all the way to Rue du Quartier, which is now Barracks street. Notice that Rue Hospital (now Governor Nicholls Street) doesn’t even go through the property. Since Pilié’s interest was identifying property owners, this block wasn’t of interest. The block between Governor Nicholls and Barracks was owned by the government, prior to the Louisiana Purchase. Just before the transfer of Louisiana to the Americans, the Spanish shifted ownership of this property to the church. The archdiocese owned that block well past the Civil War.

Legendary Locals of New Orleans
by Edward J. Branley

Since its founding in 1718 by the LeMoyne brothers, New Orleans has cemented its status as one of the busiest ports on the continent. Producing many unique and fascinating individuals, Colonial New Orleans was a true gumbo of personalities. The city lays claim to many nationalities, including Spaniards Baron Carondelet, Don Andres Almonester, and French sailors and privateers Jean Lafitte and Dominique Youx. Businessmen like Daniel Henry Holmes and Isidore Newman contributed to local flavor, as did musicians Buddy Bolden, Joe “King” Oliver, Louis Armstrong, and Louis Prima.

War heroes include P.G.T. Beauregard and Andrew Jackson Higgins. Avery Alexander, A.P. Tureaud, and Ernest Morial paved the way for African Americans to lead the city. Kate Chopin, Lafcadio Hearn, Ellen DeGeneres, Mel Ott, Archie Manning, and Drew Brees have kept the world entertained, while chefs and restaurateurs like Leah Chase and the Brennans sharpened the city’s culinary chops. Legendary Locals of New Orleans pays homage to the notables that put spice in that gumbo.

Sunset Limited 1897 #TrainThursday

Sunset Limited 1897 #TrainThursday

Sunset Limited in 1897

sunset limited 1897

The Sunset Limited, 1897

Riding the Sunset Limited, 1897

The Southern Pacific Railroad began passenger service from New Orleans to Los Angeles in 1894. The Sunset Limited originally ran from New Orleans to San Francisco, via Los Angeles. The train was a major transportation improvement for the time. The Panama Canal was still twenty years away, so getting from New York to California meant a sea voyage around South America, or a complex railroad journey over the Rocky Mountains. The Sunset Limited traveled south of the Rockies, across Texas and through the desert. The train then went north to San Francisco. In 1930, the route was cut back to Los Angeles.

Through service

This ad, from a trade publication in 1897, advertises through service from Galveston to Washington, DC. The Eastbound Sunset Limited added Pullman sleeper and drawing cars in Galveston, for the overnight trip to New Orleans. Those cars were then hooked to the Crescent. Passengers going to NYC would have to change cars in DC. The ad says “through sleeper service,” because that change was in the daytime. By the mid-20th century, it was possible to book Pullman car service from NYC to New Orleans on the Crescent, and your sleeping car would be hooked to the Sunset Limited, for a direct transcontinental journey. While Amtrak does not offer through service to New York, the Sunset Limited ran for a brief period all the way to Jacksonville, FL.

Sunset Limited 1897 consist

The Sunset Limited, 1897, operated with this basic consist:

  • A 4-4-0 American steam locomotive
  • Composite Baggage car with barber shop, bath and buffet smoker lounge El Indio
  • 7 Drawing Room Sleeper with ladies´ parlor lounge El Piloto
  • 10 Section 2 Drawing Room Sleeper El Dorado
  • Dining Car Gourmet
  • 6 Section 1 Drawing Room 3 Compartment Sleeper Cliola
  • 14 Section 1 Drawing Room Sleeper Los Angeles

The Sunset Limited transitioned to diesel operation in 1949. It became a “streamliner” train in 1950. Amtrak took the service over in 1971.

Today’s Sunset Limited

The Sunset Limited runs westbound (Amtrak #1) three days a week, Monday, Wednesday, and Saturday. I like to go out to Central Avenue in Jefferson to photograph the Sunset Limited as it approaches the Huey P. Long Bridge. Hurricane Harvey forced Amtrak to cut back service, however. The Sunset Limited temporarily runs from San Antonio to Los Angeles. The storm did not affect City of New Orleans or Crescent service.

This cutback in Sunset Limited service isn’t short-term. Houston took an incredible beating from Hurricane Harvey. If you can, please send some money down that way to help with relief efforts. I suggest the Houston Food Bank.

New Orleans: The Canal Streetcar Line

by Edward J. Branley

cemeteries terminal

The clanging of a streetcar’s bell conjures images of a time when street railways were a normal part of life in the city. Historic Canal Street represents the common ground between old and new with buses driving alongside steel rails and electric wires that once guided streetcars.

New Orleans was one of the first cities to embrace street railways, and the city’s love affair with streetcars has never ceased. New Orleans: The Canal Streetcar Line showcases photographs, diagrams, and maps that detail the rail line from its origin and golden years, its decline and disappearance for almost 40 years, and its return to operation. From the French Quarter to the cemeteries, the Canal Line ran through the heart of the city and linked the Creole Faubourgs with the new neighborhoods that stretched to Lake Pontchartrain.