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The Touro Buildings
Touro Buildings, 1873 (public domain image courtesy THNOC)
The Touro Buildings – Canal Street Retail
This pod begins a series we’ll be presenting on the connections between Krauss Department Store and other merchants up and down Canal Street. The logical place to start is the 700 block of Canal Street, between Royal and Bourbon Streets. From it’s beginnings as the first location of Christ Episcopal Church, to the end of the 19th Century, the 700 block is the story of the Touro Buildings and the merchants who set up shop there.
Second Christ Episcopal, Bourbon and Canal (public domain image courtesy THNOC)
700 Block of Canal Street, ca 1842. (public domain image courtesy THNOC)
Christ Episcopal was founded in 1805. They built their first church on Canal and Bourbon in 1816. That church lasted about 25 years. Because Protestant Americans kept moving to New Orleans, they outgrew the church. So, the chapter demolished the first church. They built a second on the same corner. The second church looked like a Greek temple, with six massive Ionic columns. The second church serviced the congregation until 1846. The chapter needed more land for a larger church. They purchased the corner of Canal and Dauphine, in the 900 block of Canal Street.
The chapter sold the second church to businessman Judah Touro. Touro worked to buy up the 700 block of Canal. While he acquired the rest of the block, he set up Temple Sinai in the church in the 700 block. While Touro wrapped up the 700 block, he moved Temple Sinai further uptown. He demolished the buildings in the 700 block of Canal. He built the “Touro Buildings,” a set of four-story buildings with shared walls, townhouse-style. Touro opened the buildings for lease in 1852.
A. Shwartz and Sons
Sanborn Fire map of 700 block of Canal St, 1856 (public domain image courtesy Tulane Howard-Tilton Library)
Abraham Shwartz was born in 1820. He opened his store, A. Shwartz Dry Goods, in the 1840s. In 1852, he moved into the newly-opened Touro Buildings. So, the store become A Shwartz & Sons in the 1870s, when Abraham’s firstborn, Nathan, joined the company. Abram’s second son, Leon, soon followed. When third son Simon was old enough to join the company, he traveled to New York, to become the company’s buyer in that city.
Bernard and Leon Fellman
Touro Buildings, 1880s. (S.T. Blessing photo in the public domain)
Bernard and Leon Fellman came to New Orleans in the 1860s, and opened their first store in the Touro Buildings in 1873. In 1878, they expanded from the first store at 133 Canal, opening a second store down the block at 129 Canal. In 1889, The brothers split. Leon bypassed the 800 block of Canal, moving to the Mercier Buildings in the 900 block. So, Bernard closed 133 Canal, keeping 129 Canal as B. Fellman Dry Goods.
The Fire, 16-February-1892
Fire in the 700 block of Canal Street, 16-Feb-1892 (public domain photo courtesy THNOC)
Almost the entire 700 block of Canal Street, the Touro Buildings, were destroyed in a fire on February 16, 1892. The fire burned out both the Shwartz and Fellman stores. The impact of the fire was dramatic. Abram Shwartz died weeks later, of a heart attack. The family always said the loss of the store killed him. Bernard Fellman’s store burned as well. While Bernard’s health was not good before the fire, the circumstances did not improve him. He passed away on September 3, 1892. His family did continue to operate the store into the 20th century.
The MB Book!
Maison Blanche Department Stores
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Heather Elizabeth Designs!
“Ain’t Dere No More Affirmation Bracelet” by Heather Elizabeth Designs
Heather Elizabeth Designs – Ain’t Dere No More!
This week’s pod is a departure for NOLA History Guy Podcast – it’s an interview! Been wanting to get this started for a while now. Heather and I were brainstorming a couple of weeks ago about tying promotion of my books with her ADNM jewelry, nightlights, and other items. I bought a Zoom H5 digital audio recorder a few weeks back. It’s incredibly portable, and the built-in mics are so good, many podcasters use the Zoom mic as their primary microphone, connected to a computer. So, I told Heather that we needed to sit down and talk history. This lady researches her pieces and knows her stuff.
What we did for the pod was to go around her “Ain’t Dere No More Affirmation Bracelet” and talk about the places represented by the various logos. It was a fun conversation. Here’s a brief run-down:
You’re already singing the jingle. Admit it, you know you are.
Pontchartrain Beach t-shirt from New Orleans Public Service
Heather and I decided we need to do a full episode together and talk about Pontchartrain Beach. We’ll do that in May or so, since that’s when Da Beach opened every year. New Orleans Public Service not only has a Pontchartrain Beach t-shirt, but it features the Art Deco-style entrance to the Zephyr, the wooden roller coaster that was the amusement park’s signature ride.
Falstaff Brewery, now the Falstaff Apartments (courtesy Flickr user “Falstaff Tulane Broad”
A long-time New Orleans landmark, the old brewery is now the Falstaff Apartments, at 2600 Gravier Street.
K&B Drug Stores, by John Epstein.
Everybody’s got a K&B story or four. We shared some of ours. This will definitely be another pod at some point. The photo here is the cover of John Epstein’s wonderful book, K&B Drug Stores, from my publisher, Arcadia.
D. H. Holmes
800 block of Canal Street, 1864 featuring the D.H. Holmes Dry Goods Store
Daniel Henry Holmes opened his dry goods store in 1842, and it became a New Orleans fixture and landmark. The building is still there, as a hotel.
Schwegmann Brothers Giant Supermarket, 2701 Airline Highway, in 1954. (courtesy NOLA.com)
“Makin’ Groceries, Schwegmann Style” – the photo is of the Schwegmann’s Heather talks about, not the smaller store on Airline that I remembered. Ann Maloney of Da Paper did a nice article on The People’s Grocer: John G. Schwegmann (2017, Neutral Ground Press, $20). The article has a bunch of other great Schwegmann’s photos.
JAX Brewery, the Moonwalk, and a Riverfront Streetcar (Infrogmation photo)
The Fabacher family’s brewery, located across the street on Decatur from Jackson Square.
Krauss – The New Orleans Value Store
Krauss – The New Orleans Value Store by Edward J. Branley
My latest book! It’s available for pre-order on Amazon.com now, and will be in local shops on September 25th. Heather has the logo as it was used regularly by the store on the bracelet. The book’s cover is reversed to make the store’s name stand out a bit more.
Sacred Heart brass-and-silver cuff, from Heather Elizabeth Designs (Edward Branley photo)
In addition to Heather’s ADNM bracelet, I could not take my eyes off her latest piece, a brass and sterling cuff with a Sacred Heart charm set in it. Heather’s an Academy of the Sacred Heart girl, and I’m a Brothers of the Sacred Heart boy!
New Orleans Public Service and LA46 – great t-shirts and a great store and venue
Beyond Bourbon St – Mark Bologna’s fantastic podcast
The Station – coffee shop on Bienville at N. Alexander Streets
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Krauss – The New Orleans Value Store
by Edward J. Branley
For almost one hundred years, generations of New Orleans shoppers flocked to Krauss. The Canal Street store was hailed for its vast merchandise selection and quality customer service. In its early days, it sold lace and fabric to the ladies of the notorious red-light district of Storyville. The store’s renowned lunch counter, Eddie’s at Krauss, served Eddie Baquet’s authentic New Orleans cuisine to customers and celebrities such as Julia Child. Although the beloved store finally closed its doors in 1997, Krauss is still fondly remembered as a retail haven. With vintage photographs, interviews with store insiders and a wealth of research, historian Edward J. Branley brings the story of New Orleans’ Creole department store back to life.
Krauss – The New Orleans Value Store
Cover of Krauss – The New Orleans Value Store, by Edward J. Branley
The cover of the Krauss – The New Orleans Value Store
And here it is! Here’s the back-cover text:
For almost one hundred years, generations of New Orleans shoppers flocked to Krauss. The Canal Street store was hailed for its vast merchandise selection and quality customer service. In its early days, it sold lace and fabric to the ladies of the notorious red-light district of Storyville. The store’s renowned lunch counter, Eddie’s at Krauss, served Eddie Baquet’s authentic New Orleans cuisine to customers and celebrities such as Julia Child. Although the beloved store finally closed its doors in 1997, Krauss is still fondly remembered as a retail haven. With vintage photographs, interviews with store insiders, and a wealth of research, historian Edward J. Branley brings the story of New Orleans’ Creole department store back to life.
Krauss book drops on 25-September
I’m excited! This was a fun story to tell. So much here–Jewish retailing families, Storyville, the Creoles of Treme, transportation…even a Pontchartrain Beach connection! From Leon Fellman to the Krauss Brothers, to Leon Heymann, his son, Jimmy, grandson Jerry, Krauss was a family operation. Like many department stores, Krauss was a large extended family. Krauss to touched many people over the years.
The book chronicles the store’s how Leon Fellman decided to buy up the 1200 block of Canal Street. He built a store that the length of the block. Fellman leased that building to the Krauss brothers. They turned the building into a “veritable trade palace” whose lifetime spanned almost the entire 20th Century. Krauss rode the highs and lows of New Orleans, including two World Wars, the Great Depression, and the post-war boom years of the 1950s and 1960s. The store didn’t pop up at once, of course, growing back from Fellman’s original building. Krauss eventually filled up the entire block from Canal to Iberville Street, then the block behind that, Iberville Street to Bienville Street! The store was right in front of Storyville, right next to the train station, as well as in the hearts of many.
Krauss and the Union Passenger Terminal New Orleans
Union Passenger Terminal, New Orleans, 2016
The Union Passenger Terminal
The Union Passenger Terminal (UPT) is New Orleans’ train station. Constructed in 1952, it replaced five passenger terminals located at various points in the city. UPT has a direct connection to Krauss Department Store, in that one of the stations it replaced was Terminal Station, located at Canal and Basin Streets. Terminal Station was right next to Krauss from 1908 to 1954. When UPT was completed, the city demolished Terminal Station. Canal Street shoppers never fully realized just how big Krauss Department Store was, because Terminal Station obscured the store’s depth.
Terminal Station was still nine years away when Leon Fellman bought the buildings in the 1200 block of Canal Street in 1899, and five years away when Krauss opened in 1903. The station had a wonderful symbiotic relationship with the store for all those years. You forgot something for your trip to New Orleans, and there was this department store with absolutely everything right next door when you got off the train! The concierges and staffs at the downtown hotels also knew this, and regularly steered guests to Krauss for those last-minute essentials and other purchases.
Visitors to the City
There is so much more to the story of UPT, and we’ll go more in-depth on that at some point. When the landscape of even a few blocks changes, like the area around Krauss after Terminal Station vanished, it’s important to make the connections. Krauss had the next-door neighbor connection to the Southern Railway and Gulf, Mobile and Ohio, both of which came into the station on Basin Street. Passengers coming to Canal Street from Union Station on Howard Avenue came to S. Rampart and Canal, just a block from Krauss. The buyers at Krauss knew this, and made sure the visitors saw enticing goods as they passed by.
Home Furnishings for the Roaring Twenties!
New Orleans Item, November 6, 1921
Home Furnishings – Uptown and Downtown
Home Furnishings were an important part of the Krauss product line. While many dry goods stores at the turn of the 20th Century specialized in clothing, linens, etc., the Krauss brothers expanded out, offering a wider range of products. Rugs made perfect sense, since they were a fabric product, and the buyers were able to make the right connections in New York to get them. So, the store wasn’t satisfied with that, moving into other flooring options, like linoleum. Linoleum was common throughout the late 1800s. Invented in 1855, good linoleum was a practical and tough floor covering. The product is organic. Modern-day plastic flooring is often called “linoleum,” but that’s more a connection made by older folks who remember walking on the real thing.
Many of the same manufacturers who made rugs also made big blankets. After all, the setup of the production line isn’t all that different. The usually buying method used by Krauss was to negotiate with a factory for product. They’d go looking for one thing, identify other items out there at good wholesale prices, and bring them back to New Orleans. Sometimes they were marked as a special lot and sold as such. Other times that first purchase turned out to be a good thing for all, and the products entered the regular store inventory.
Krauss in 1921 looked a bit different than the big building at 1201 Canal Street now. The brothers expanded the original building back about fifty feet in 1911. That addition went up five stories. All of the expansions after that added on at five stories, goign to six in the back later. There were no escalators in 1921, so shoppers got to the upper floors via elevators.
Newspaper ads were the main way the store had to communicate with shoppers, even after radios became widespread.