Terminal Station fades into history
The Southerner was the last train to leave Terminal Station on Canal Street. (courtesy Tulane’s LaRC)
Terminal Station on Canal Street
Tulane’s Louisiana Resource Collection shared some important photos in Louisiana railroad history for April 16. The first photo is of Southern Railroad’s Train #48, better known as “The Southerner.” The Southerner was a “limited” train that ran from New Orleans to New York City. The train began operation in 1941, using EMD E6 engines and brand=new, corrugated-sided cars from Pullman-Standard.
The photo above shows the last Southerner leaving Terminal Station, on April 16, 1954. The Illinois Central and Kansas City Southern railroads had already moved their operations to Union Passenger Terminal on Loyola. When The Southerner departed on April 16th, Southern Railroad’s inbound trains were re-routed to their new home on Loyola Avenue.
The Southerner, on its way to New York (Wikimedia Commons)
Terminal Station was built on Canal Street in 1908. It serviced the Southern and Gulf, Mobile and Ohio railroads. So, in the black-and-white photo above, the photographer stands on the Basin Street neutral ground, behind the stations’s platforms. Krauss Department Store is visible on the right.
“The Pelican” backing into Union Passenger Terminal, April 16, 1954 (courtesy Tulane’s LaRC)
The first Southern Railroad train to enter Union Passenger Terminal was “The Pelican.” The Pelican also ran from New Orleans to NYC, but its consist was an luxury affair. It used sleeper cars owned by Pullman-Standard. There were no coach cars. The tracks coming into UPT include a “wye” track. While the incoming trains came in engine-first, they turned around on the wye. Then the engines backed into the platforms.
The Pelican at Union Passenger Terminal, April 16, 1954 (courtesy Tulane’s LaRC)
The Mayor of New Orleans in the 1950s was deLessepps Story Morrison. He was one of the biggest proponents of a single train station for the city. New Orleans had five stations around the city. Union Passenger Terminal remains in use by Amtrak and the Greyhound Bus company today.
Krauss and the Union Passenger Terminal New Orleans
Union Passenger Terminal, New Orleans, 2016
The Union Passenger Terminal
The Union Passenger Terminal (UPT) is New Orleans’ train station. Constructed in 1952, it replaced five passenger terminals located at various points in the city. UPT has a direct connection to Krauss Department Store, in that one of the stations it replaced was Terminal Station, located at Canal and Basin Streets. Terminal Station was right next to Krauss from 1908 to 1954. When UPT was completed, the city demolished Terminal Station. Canal Street shoppers never fully realized just how big Krauss Department Store was, because Terminal Station obscured the store’s depth.
Terminal Station was still nine years away when Leon Fellman bought the buildings in the 1200 block of Canal Street in 1899, and five years away when Krauss opened in 1903. The station had a wonderful symbiotic relationship with the store for all those years. You forgot something for your trip to New Orleans, and there was this department store with absolutely everything right next door when you got off the train! The concierges and staffs at the downtown hotels also knew this, and regularly steered guests to Krauss for those last-minute essentials and other purchases.
Visitors to the City
There is so much more to the story of UPT, and we’ll go more in-depth on that at some point. When the landscape of even a few blocks changes, like the area around Krauss after Terminal Station vanished, it’s important to make the connections. Krauss had the next-door neighbor connection to the Southern Railway and Gulf, Mobile and Ohio, both of which came into the station on Basin Street. Passengers coming to Canal Street from Union Station on Howard Avenue came to S. Rampart and Canal, just a block from Krauss. The buyers at Krauss knew this, and made sure the visitors saw enticing goods as they passed by.
Sully illustration from 1836 of Faubourg Marigny
Marigny to Milneburg
From 1836, an illustration by G. W. Sully of the riverfront in Faubourg Marigny. You can see the station for the Pontchartrain Railroad on the left side of the illustration. The railroad was chartered in 1830, and began operations in 1831, so this was just five years into its existence. The purpose of the Pontchartrain Railroad was to connect the city, specifically, Faubourg Marigny, Faubourg Treme, and the French Quarter. Alexander Milne developed the area at what is now Elysian Fields Avenue and the lake into a port district, which became known as Milneburg. In addition to coming up the Mississippi River, much of the city’s ocean-going ship traffic came to New Orleans from the Gulf of Mexico, through the Chef Menteur Pass or the Rigolets Pass, into Lake Pontchartrain. Once in the lake, the larger ships were unable to go down Bayou St. John and the Carondelet Canal. Milneburg made it easier for the ships, since all they had to do was dock on the lakefront.
New Orleans’ First Railroad
The only catch was that the city was five miles away! The solution was simple, though, build a railroad. The planning/discussions for the railroad began in 1828. The first train, pulled by horses, left the station on April 14, 1831. Steam locomotives took over for animal power in June of 1832. This connection was a major path for commerce and goods up to the Civil War. After the war, as rail service to New Orleans began to expand, the Pontchartrain Railroad was acquired by larger rail concerns.
Sail to Steam
Notice that, in this illustration, the vessels are all powered by sail. That would change dramatically, as larger ships were constructed with steam engines and side paddlewheels, to speed up the journey from New Orleans to Havana, and various ports in along the American coast and Europe. These heavier ships were unable to use the passes into Lake Pontchartrain. This cut back on the shipping traffic docking at Milneburg, and the railroad no longer transported the goods it once did. Like many port areas, Milneburg became more of a recreational area than commercial, and the railroad then began to carry more passengers than goods. In the 1830s, though, it was all about commerce.
Train Thursday is cross-posted to Canal Streetcar (dot com)
Dedication of the Amtrak City of New Orleans, 1981 (photo courtesy John Sita)
This week’s Train Thursday image is from 1981. Alan Boyd, President of Amtrak, Lieutenant Governor James Fitzmorris, and Mayor Ernest Morial preside over the return/re-dedication of the City of New Orleans train line. The train, provided service between Chicago and New Orleans. The Illinois Central RR started the service in 1947, as a daytime complement to the railroad’s Panama Limited train. The Panama Limited was an overnight service, and the City of New Orleans operated as a day service. The overnight train made fewer stops, but the daytime service stopped at many small towns along the route.
When Amtrak took over in 1971, the company initially operated the City of New Orleans on the daytime schedule, but shifted it to night service after six months. They re-named the train to the Panama Limited. Amtrak changed the name back to City of New Orleans in 1981. They wanted to cash in on the popularity of Arlo Guthrie’s version of the song about the train. The company retained the overnight schedule, in spite of the name change.
The City of New Orleans ran consistently from 1981 until Hurricane Katrina, in 2005. Amtrak cancelled service south of Memphis in the wake of the storm. As New Orleans recovered from Katrina, service was first restored as far south as Hammond Louisiana. On October 8, 2005, the City of New Orleans continued from Hammond, across the western side of Lake Pontchartrain, then into the city.
The current Amtrak timetable for the City of New Orleans has the train departing New Orleans daily at 1:45pm, arriving in Chicago at 9am the next morning. The return trip departs Chicago at 8:05am, returning to New Orleans the next day at 3:32pm. Amtrak’s route guide for the train provides more details about the journey.
Train Thursday is going to be a thing for the two websites, since New Orleans has been an important railroad hub for over 150 years.
Entrance to the passenger waiting room for white passengers, Union Station, New Orleans, 1948. Jim Crow laws allowed whites to separate themselves from African-Americans, both on the trains and in the stations. The Franck Studios caption on the print says “So. Pacific RR Co”. Southern Pacific’s Sunset Limited train operated from Union Station, as did the Illinois Central’s City of New Orleans and Panama Limited trains.
Exterior shot of Union Station. HNOC note says this is from 1941, but that date is too early. That’s Union Passenger Terminal behind Union Station. Construction on UPT did not begin until 1950. The new station opened in 1954, at which time Union Station was torn down.