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Two short-form pieces this week on NOLA History Guy Podcast 8-June-2019
Chalmette National Cemetery (NPS photo)
NOLA History Guy Podcast 8-June-2019
We hope you enjoyed our conversations with Derby Gisclair over the last two weeks. Back to short-form this week, with our pick from Today in New Orleans History and some thoughts on Chalmette National Cemetery.
The Industrial Canal
Our pick from NewOrleansPast dot com this week is 6-June-1918. That’s when construction of the Industrial Canal began.As a refresher, there were three connections that ran from the city to the lake over time:
- The Carondelet Canal, 1795, which ran from just above the French Quarter, out to what is now Mid-City, and the start of Bayou St. John. This canal fixed the “Old Portage” problem.
- The Pontchartrain Railroad, which ran from Port Milneburg to Faubourg Marigny. The railroad was a straight run, along what eventually became Elysian Fields Avenue. Heavier ships would come into Lake Pontchartrain from the Gulf of Mexico and would dock at the pier at Milneburg. The railroad carried goods and people from the pier to the station at the river.
- The New Basin Canal. Completed in 1838, the New Canal connected the “American Sector” to the lake. The canal began at S. Rampart Street. It ran out to Lake Pontchartrain at West End. A small portion of the canal remains at West End.
So, these three connected the city up to the start of the 20th Century. By 1910, though, the canals lacked the depth to service larger ships. In 1914, the state authorized the Port of New Orleans to build a new canal. The canal began in the Ninth Ward, just past Poland Avenue. It runs straight from there, out to the lake.
Chalmette National Cemetery
Unveiling of the USCT Memorial in Cape Girardeau MO
I saw an article about a monument to United States Colored Troops (USCT) in Cape Girardeau, Missouri. When I shared that article on NOLA History Guy’s Facebook page, I mentioned that we should have such a USCT monument, probably out at Chalmette National Cemetery. Thousands of USCT soldiers rest in that cemetery. I got some racist feedback on this, from folks who clearly were unaware of the cemetery’s origins. Here’s a quick run-down.
Chalmette Cemetery – USCT
Markers of graves of Unknown Soldiers from the Civil War in Chalmette Cemetery (Edward Branley photo)
Chalmette Cemetery and United States Colored Troops
Many men died fighting for the Union in South Louisiana. New Orleans surrendered in April, 1862. The Union Army used the city as a base to move north. They pressed the rebels from both directions along the Mississippi. Major General Benjamin Butler brought a force close to 3000 men to Ship Island to invade New Orleans. A sizable contingent of that force were United States Colored Troops (USCT).
Black men served in the US Army for a number of reasons. They were citizens of the free states. Some were the sons and grandsons of slaves. Their ancestors escaped from the South. So, they made lives for themselves in the Northern states. There were 175 regiments of USCT by 1865, a full one-tenth of the US Army.
Fighting for the Union
Chalmette National Cemetery (Edward Branley photo)
Black soldiers fought as segregated units The “Colored Troops” battalions and regiments were often raised by white men who were willing to command black soldiers, such as the 54th Massachusetts. While the men might know each other, was, the white officers didn’t. In many cases, Their soldiers didn’t live anywhere near where the unit was raised. So, when these men died in action in the Deep South, the survivors and the locals had no idea who they were.
Butler held incredible power as the general commanding the occupation. Since the war continued after the invasion, the army needed a place to bury their dead. The battlefield in Chalmette was a possible choice for a cemetery. The city preserved the battlefield, and nobody really lived down there, even by the 1860s.
The army sectioned off a portion of the battlefield on the eastern side. This was the “British side” of the battlefield, Pakenham’s army advanced on the Americans from there. Since the bulk of the action took place on the “American side,” nobody considered the cemetery as an affront.
The top photo shows the markers of “unknowns,” mostly USCT soldiers. The second photo shows the standard markers used by National Cemeteries at the time.
If you haven’t been down to Chalmette Battlefield and Chalmette National Cemetery since your eighth grade field trip, jump in the car!
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Maunsel White, Irishman, planter, and veteran of the Battle of New Orleans, is the subject of our first pod of 2017.
Beyond Bourbon Street by Mark Bologna
Guest Starring on Podcasts!
Our first pod for 2017! We’re behind a bit, because @NOLAHistoryGuy started out the year doing a guest segment on another podcast. It was fun to sit and chat with Mark Bologna of Beyond Bourbon Street about the Battle of New Orleans. Mark is @BeyondBourbonST on Twitter – note the “ST” for “Street” in Mark’s Twitter handle and website.
After attending a wonderful talk by Mr. Winston Hu of the University of New Orleans Department of History (my old stomping ground as an undergrad) on the history of Chinese people in New Orleans, I went out to Cypress Grove Cemetery to photograph the “Chinese Tomb” that Hu discussed.
(editor’s note: Let’s be honest here, walking through Cypress Grove isn’t a huge sacrifice for me, since I park on Canal Street by the cemetery, then walk over to Banks Street, to go to Wakin’ Bakin’ for breakfast, coffee, and writing time.)
Maunsel White, 1851
Maunsel White and Cemetery Exploration
White family tomb in Cypress Grove Cemetery, on Canal Street
As I walked through Cypress Grove, I came across a mausoleum with “Maunsel White” carved in the top. There was a small bronze plaque at the base of the mausoleum, indicating that the senior White was a veteran of the War of 1812. I remembered the name, that he was one of Jackson’s officers on 8-Jan-1815. I shot a bunch of photos, then made a note to do an article on him for my cemetery website. Then I looked him up, and realized he was part of the bigger story of the Battle of New Orleans. Not to steal the thunder from what Mark and I chatted about on his pod, I decided that talking about White would be a good complementary discussion.
Plaque on Maunsel White’s tomb
So, have a listen to White, and his involvement in the days following the Battle of New Orleans. Be sure to add Beyond Bourbon Street’s pod to your playlist, and recommend it to your friends.
Beyond Bourbon Street and the Battle of New Orleans
Catch us on the latest ep of Mark Bologna’s “Beyond Bourbon Street” podcast this week. We had a great time talking about the Battle of New Orleans, out at The Original Fiorella’s Restaurant, in Gentilly.
Battle paintings from the 19th Century
When you go over to the show page, you’ll see Mark used the Edward Percy Moran painting of the battle as the page’s main image. It’s a fantastic depiction of a Napoleonic-era battle, but it’s got a few factual inaccuracies.
- The Highlanders at the Battle of New Orleans didn’t wear full dress on the battlefield. They’d been in the field for over two weeks, so they likely did not bring their kilts with them from the Royal Navy ships that transported them. They wore the grey, oilskin trousers they wore on campaign with Wellington in Spain.
- There was no epic, pitched battle along the rampart, like Moran shows. Jackson’s gunners raked the British line that advanced on his positions with grapeshot and chain. The battalions that came in range of those guns were all but obliterated before they got close.
So, why did Moran paint the battle this way? After the Summer of 1815, and the Hundred Days’ Campaign in Europe, painters across Europe romanticized the final battles of Napoleon’s reign as Emperor of the French. British painters focused on Wellington’s victory at Waterloo. It’s only logical to romanticize the biggest American victory of the war of 1812 in a similar manner.
The same thing happened with paintings of naval battles. Just as British artists made epic paintings of Lord Nelson’s victory at Trafalgar, American artists painted the naval victories of the United States Navy in a similar fashion.
Not that any of this talk of paintings lessens the importance of the American victory at New Orleans. As we discuss in the podcast, the implications for both North America and Europe were huge. Had the battle gone the other way, the maps of both continents may be totally different today. In fact, now I’ve got some ideas on alternate-history stories!
“The Battle of New Orleans at Chalmette” Painting by Jean Hyacinthe de Laclotte (1766 – 1829), a member of the Louisiana Militia who participated in the battle; painted by him after the victory based on his sketches made at the scene
Chalmette Battlefield – the Battle of New Orleans
Chalmette Battlefield, was where the main clash between the forces of the United States and Great Britain in the Battle of New Orleans took place. The land battle occurred on Jan. 8, 1815. That action didn’t end the campaign. In the aftermath of the battle, stories and myths surrounding it popped up. The real story, while not as colorful as the rumors, is still fascinating.
Naval Battle on Lake Borgne, War of 1812, by Thomas L. Hornbrook
Many think of the “Battle of New Orleans” as one confrontation in January 1815. It was actually a campaign that began in September, 1814, in Mobile Bay. Major General Andrew Jackson made the strategic decision to fall back from Mobile. So, he decided to defend the most important city on the Gulf Coast — New Orleans. The British advanced in his wake. The first engagement near New Orleans was on Dec. 14, 1814. It was the Battle of Lake Borgne. Sir Edward Pakenham arrived on the scene on Dec. 25. Pakenham ordered a reconnaissance-in-force for Dec. 28. This set the stage for the main engagement. Even on Jan. 8, the British advanced on the city from both sides of the river. This forced Jackson to set up defenses on the West Bank as well as Chalmette.
The Battle of New Orleans. January 1815. Copy of engraving by H. B. Hall after W. Momberger., ca. 1900 – 1982
The Royal Navy
The land battles of the New Orleans Campaign ended Jan. 8, 1815. It was a decisive victory for the American forces under the command of Jackson. That didn’t end the campaign, though. Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane, in overall command of the British expedition, sent a squadron of four ships up the Mississippi River to attack Fort St. Philip. The fort (there was no “Fort Jackson” yet, across the river). Fort St. Phillip was the main point of defense on the river. It was located in what is now the East Bank of Plaquemines Parish.
The importance of Fort St. Phillip diminished over time, as the larger Fort Jackson was built and became the focal point of the defense of New Orleans in the Civil War. The Royal Navy ships bombarded Fort St. Phillip for 10 days. The fort’s defenders did not give up. The distance bombardment was unsuccessful, which meant the RN ships could not move further upriver. This was the last chance the British had: even though Jackson found success on the battlefield, warships anchored in the river across from the French Quarter could have compelled him to surrender the city.
Pirates and Rifles
Jean Lafitte (anonymous portrait)
There are many stories and legends surrounding the pirate Jean Lafitte at this time. Some attribute the failure of the Royal Navy to get upriver and assist the army to some sort of intervention by Lafitte and his crews. There’s no clear evidence to support this. Since Lafitte was not present at Chalmette, speculation continues. Lafitte’s influence on the outcome was significant. Lafitte provided two companies of skilled artillerymen to Jackson, one under the command of Dominique Youx.
Youx was one of Lafitte’s captains and a trusted subordinate. Jackson’s original concern, and his original plan for Lafitte’s men, was to place them at Fort St. John. Locals know this fort as “Spanish Fort”. It’s located where Bayou St. John meets Lake Pontchartrain. They were there to block any attempt by Cochrane to penetrate New Orleans from the north. It became clear that the British would advance from the east, via St. Bernard Parish. So, Jackson moved Lafitte’s men to Chalmette. Their expert handling of artillery batteries along the Rodriguez Canal redoubt made a major contribution to the British defeat.
Artillerymen carry the day
Lafitte’s crews made a much more significant contribution than the “Kentucky Riflemen” of legend. On Jan. 4 and 5, Jackson’s command at New Orleans was reinforced by a large contingent of men from Kentucky. Accounts place the size of that contingent at anywhere from 1,000 to 2,300 men. All accounts indicate that those men were poorly clothed and mostly unarmed. Fewer than 100 of them had their own weapons, so the overwhelming majority of these men had to be armed with whatever could be scraped together in the city.
When Jackson ran for president, the story of Kentuckians supporting New Orleans was embellished a great deal to make the general look more the hero. While the additional manpower along the redoubt certainly did not hurt, its impact was significantly less than the legend claims. The “Kentucky Riflemen” were no doubt good shots and could fire with accuracy from longer distances than their musket-bearing opponents, but there just weren’t enough of them. What caused the most carnage on Jan. 8 was artillery fire from the batteries along the redoubt. The American artillery fired volley after volley of “grapeshot,” turning the cannons into massive shotguns. All those smaller balls and pieces of lead cut down the British officers.
The British didn’t “run”
Jackson kept his army in the field for two weeks after the carnage on Chalmette Battlefield. After the deaths of Major Generals Pakenham and Gibbs on the field at Chalmette, as well as Lt. Colonel Dane of the 93rd and a significant number of other field-grade officers, the command-and-control of the British force was destroyed. With no orders to either advance or retreat, soldiers withdrew from the rain of death coming from the American batteries, but then froze in place. By the time Major General Lambert arrived and assumed command, it was too late. The British had already suffered horrific casualties, and lacked officers to turn the commander’s orders into specific tactical instructions at the company level. All Lambert could do is order a withdrawal from Chalmette. He then pinned his hopes on the Royal Navy.
Map of the British Advance on New Orleans, December, 1814 (USMA)
Victory for Jackson
When it became clear that the naval attack would not give the British the city, Lambert sent a messenger to Jackson on Jan. 18, suggesting an exchange of prisoners. Jackson agreed, and the British began a full retreat. Jackson was not in a position to pursue Lambert and the British survivors. Most of his “army” consisted of volunteers capable of holding a defensive position, but not acting as an attacking force.
Jackson did send a squadron of cavalry to harry the British, “encouraging” them to continue their retreat. Jackson finally allowed the rest of his force to return to the city on Jan. 21, arriving to a hero’s welcome on the Jan. 23. The last of the British force made it back to their ships by Jan. 27, 1815, marking the end of the New Orleans Campaign.
On the way out, Cochrane and Lambert made one last attempt at establishing a British foothold on the Gulf Coast. On Feb. 12, 1815, the British captured Fort Bowyer, on Mobile Bay. Word of the Treaty of Ghent came to them as they prepared an attack on the city of Mobile, so they packed up and sailed for Britain.
Changing the Course of History
There are several big takeaways from the Battle of New Orleans. The biggest is that the American victory brought the War of 1812 to a clear conclusion. Had the British captured New Orleans, they might not have acknowledged the end of the war. New Orleans was the second-largest city in the United States, and control of the Mississippi River was essential to the nation’s security and growth.
A British occupation of New Orleans may still have only been temporary, but it could have forced a reopening of treaty negotiations. The British never recognized Napoleon Bonaparte as a legitimate ruler, so they might have challenged the validity of the entire Louisiana Purchase. Certainly the culture of New Orleans as a community would have changed dramatically, under the control of a British occupation force.
Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington at Waterloo. Major General Sir Edward Pakenham was Wellington’s brother-in-law
A second important outcome of the Battle of New Orleans was its impact on the Battle of Waterloo. The British have heralded the victory at Waterloo for almost 200 years now, but it’s important to remember that, at the time, Wellington characterized the battle as “a near-run thing.” An occupation of New Orleans and possible British expansion into the territory of the Louisiana Purchase would have stretched the British Army incredibly thin. Further speculation is the stuff of “alternative history” novels, but certainly things in Europe might have been quite different had the British not been sent home from New Orleans in defeat.
President Andrew Jackson
Jackson Statue, from King’s Hand-book of the United States planned and edited by M. King. Text by M. F. Sweetser
The single individual to benefit most from the New Orleans Campaign was Andrew Jackson. The victory on Jan. 8 made Jackson not only a hero in New Orleans, but a national figure.
He became Military Governor of Florida in 1821. Jackson led battles against the Seminole tribe. Success in the Seminole War returned him to the U.S. Senate in 1823. He ran for president in 1824. After losing an acrimonious campaign to Adams that year, he ran again, four years later. Jackson won, becoming the nation’s seventh president. In New Orleans, the Place d’Armes in front of St. Louis Cathedral was renamed “Jackson Square” in 1851. An equestrian statue of Jackson was commissioned and erected in the square five years later.
Chalmette National Battlefield (NPS photo)
The final big takeaway of the Battle of New Orleans was its impact on tourism. The land that is Chalmette Battlefield, near the Rodriguez Canal, was considered hallowed ground by many in the city, and the State of Louisiana purchased this land in 1855. Plans began to construct a monument on the battlefield, which was finally completed in 1908. The state turned the battlefield over to the federal government in 1930.
Up to the start of the Civil War, Jan. 8 was considered a major day of celebration in New Orleans, and many would make the trek down to Chalmette to visit the battlefield. The Union Army sectioned off a portion of the “British side” of the battlefield property to make a military cemetery for both Union and Confederate troops in 1864. The cemetery, along with the battlefield, passed to the National Park Service in 1933.
NPS maintains the Chalmette National Battlefield as part of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve. It is open year-round. Early January is a busy time at the battlefield. Volunteers gather to present “living history” demonstrations, include a re-enactment of the 8-January-1815 battle. Events for 2017 are from January 4-8. This is typical for the annual commemoration of the battle.
Visiting the Battlefield
If you’re coming to New Orleans this year, consider a trip down to the battlefield as part of your plans. It’s a short drive from downtown along St. Claude Avenue and the St. Bernard Highway. The Steamboat Natchez goes past the battlefield as part of its daily tours on the Mississippi, and the Paddlewheeler Creole Queen actually docks at Chalmette, allowing you time to explore the battlefield.
While it’s a lot of fun to get down to the battlefield, many folks don’t have time. Be sure to check out the exhibits at The Cabildo, one of the Louisiana State Museum’s properties. Located next to St. Louis Cathedral at Jackson Square, the Cabildo features a number of BNO-related items. Additionally, take a look at tours, lectures and other events sponsored by the Friends of the Cabildo.
Battle of New Orleans – 1815
Tomb of Maunsel White, veteran of the Battle of New Orleans
Battle of New Orleans – 1815
On the evening of January 7, 1815, the Ursuline sisters gathered in the church attached to their convent on Rue Chartres in the French Quarter, along with a number of local residents. They began to pray, in particular to Our Lady of Prompt Succor, that their city, New Orleans, be spared from the ravages of the British Army which was camped a few miles down the Mississippi River near the Chalmette Plantation. The next morning, January 8, Father William Dubourg said Mass at the convent and the Prioress, Mother Ste. Marie Olivier de Vezin, promised to have a Mass sung annually in thanksgiving if the city would be spared. The church next to the Old Ursuline Convent is now St. Mary’s Italian Church, and they do indeed sing that Mass every year, in thanks for the Battle of New Orleans 1815
The 93rd Highlanders are repulsed from the American positions in this (very innaccurate and highly romanticized) 1910 painting of the Battle of New Orleans by Edward Percy Moran (Wikimedia Commons)
Vice-Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane of the Royal Navy was not able to deliver on his boast that he would spend Christmas, 1814, in New Orleans. By New Year’s, he was still on his flagship in Lake Borgne, as Sir Edward Pakenham planned to advance from Chalmette onto the city of New Orleans. To get there, though, Pakenham and his force of over 7,400 soldiers and 1,500 Royal Marines would have to get past the Rodriguez Canal, where Major General Andrew Jackson, U.S. Army, and over 4,000 men waited for them.
Jackson knew his force of Army regulars, volunteers, and pirates was vastly outnumbered, but he had geography and marksmanship on his side. Pakenham ordered his force to advance, under the cover of fog. As the sun rose, however, the fog burned off, offering the British lines as juicy targets to American artillery.
Positions of the American and British forces on the morning of January 8, 1815 (USMA map, Wikimedia Commons)
Then the mistakes compounded themselves. The 44th Foot (East Essex) forgot the ladders they would need to cross the Rodriguez Canal. The rampart the American forces used stood behind the canal. The 85th Foot (Bucks Volunteers), reinforced by other troops, had crossed the Mississippi down river from the battlefield, but was now unable to cross back to the east bank to support the main advance.
Grapeshot from the cannon behind the American redoubt killed even more of the British. While the American riflemen played a part, chainshot and grapeshot decimated the British officers. The British suffered a serious command-and-control breakdown. Americans killed over twenty senior British officers, including Major General Samuel Gibbs, commander of the inland column. The American line wounded Major General John Keane, commander of the second column. This slowed the advance along the river. The command breakdown cost the British dearly. The 93rd Highlanders, whose light company actually broke through to the redoubt on the left (inland) flank of the American forces, were ordered to cross the main battlefield. Their commander, Lt. Col. Dale, was killed during this movement.
With no officers able to take the initiative, the Americans mowed down the regiment. Many of the 291 British killed at Chalmette were Highlanders. Unlike Edward Percy Moran’s depiction of the attack of the 93rd, the Highlanders never got that close to the redoubt.
Death of Ned Pakenham
Title: Death of Pakenham at the Battle of New Orleans/F.O.C. Darley. Image date: ca. 1860.
Then came the most severe blow to the British advance: Grapeshot from the American guns struck Sir Edward in the knee. He fell off his horse. A musket ball then struck him in the arm as he re-mounted. Mortally wounded, Pakenham’s last words were orders for Maj. Gen. Lambert to bring up his reserves. The reserves advanced, too little, too late. The 85th, stuck on the west bank, fired on the battlefield with little success. Lambert’s staff advised they needed 2,000 men to defend Thornton’s position. Lambert withdrew, faced with heavy losses on both sides of the river.
Cochrane and Lambert allowed a planned attack on Fort St. Philip, just north of the mouth of the Mississippi River, to proceed on January 9. The Royal Navy bombarded the fort unsuccessfully for ten days, before withdrawing on January 18. Lambert concluded that continuing the attack on New Orleans would be too costly, so the fleet left the area on February 5, 1815.The British mounted a successful attack on Fort Bowyer in Mobile Bay on February 12, but withdrew from there once they received word of the Treaty of Ghent, ending hostilities in the War of 1812.
Major General Jackson returned to the city a hero, along with his ragtag force. Praises of their deeds and valor on January 8, 1815, are still sung to this day.
And Catholics still give thanks to Notre Dame de Bon Secours.